Phat & Furious @ Mist Club on 22th January 2010

Dropping by to Mist Club on 22th January 2010 and have some shots taken while I see many peoples hanging out there with some girl model posing to get their shots with the ride there. As I can see on that night, there are 2 clubs available there which are Caldina Club Malaysia ( CCM ) and Sakura Stallionz. 

Led Lights make miracles happened. You can see the customization nicely done to the rides here.

This girl is lying on the Nissan Sylvia S15 and posing to get her shot with the ride.

Below are the photes in slideshow of the cars I have shoot that night ya. Do have a look at it. =)

How an Automatic Transmission Works

There are two types of transmissions most commonly used today, automatic and  manual (stick shift). Most automatic transmissions have a service filter in the  transmission pan that should be changed at manufacturer specified intervals. When servicing an automatic  transmission a complete fluid flush is recommended to clean the many passages  inside an automatic transmission and to get the fluid that is trapped in the torque  converter.
The driver selects a mode by maneuvering the gear shift lever, usually placed  on the steering column or next to the driver's seat in the center console. In most  cars it is necessary to depress the brake pedal before the gear selector can be  moved from the Park position. Gear selection options usually include (P)park, (R)reverse,  (N)neutral, (O)overdrive, (D)drive, (2)second and (L or 1)first gear in that order.  The park or P mode locks the transmission mechanically. This restricts movement  of car in any direction. This is achieved using a metal rod that engages the output  shaft and prohibits movement.
An automatic transmission functions by automatically changing the gear ratios  while determining the speed and load of the engine. Automatic transmissions have  been available since the 1950s. The automatic transmission is controlled by selecting  a desired gear from the hydraulic gear engagement system.

Automatic Transmission Gear Range Selector


Inside the Automatic Transmission

The automatic transmission consists of: a transmission case, planetary gear-sets,  valve body, fluid cooler (in radiator) and a torque converter or fluid coupler.  A torque converter utilizes transmission fluid as a coupling agent allowing the  engine to run while the car is stopped without stalling the engine, then re-engaging  to make the car move again once the RPM of the engine has increased. A series of  clutches and band controlled planetary gear sets provide multiple forward gear ratios  with a set reverse gear. The valve body is the hydraulic control center that receives  pressurized fluid via the main transmission pump. This system is controlled by the  PCM (power control module) in newer cars and mechanically in older ones (Pre-computer  controls).

Automatic Transmission cut-away Image

To prevent damage to the transmission the car should be at a complete  stop before engaging the Park mode. Park mode is also one of the modes in which  the car can be started; the other is the N or neutral position.

The neutral or N mode is used to disengage the transmission from  the drive wheels to let the car move freely. The drive or D mode allows the car  to vary its speed through a range of forward gears, usually 4 forward gears exist,  but companies like Audi, BMW, Lexus and Mercedes Benz have developed a direct shift  gearbox that has up to 8 forward gears.

The D4 mode is best suited for highway speeds and D3 can be used  for around town driving. The first, 1 or L mode is meant to lock the transmission  in first gear. In this mode a vehicle will move slowly but have more power that  can be used when towing or on steep grades. The second, 2 or S mode is used to lock  the transmission in the first two gears. This is used in extreme weather conditions  like ice and snow and to govern vehicle speed.

Automatic Transmission Computerized operating system with ABS Brake System

Automatic transmissions make specific noises when a malfunction  occurs. An automatic transmission is a hydraulic pressure driven system and it will  make different noises than a manual transmission. If the transmission filter becomes  plugged due to debris, it can make a whining noise. If the fluid level is low, you  might hear a gurgling sound, caused by the pump scavenging fluid inside the transmission  pan. Most internal failures are due to bearing, clutch or hard part failure. When  such a failure occurs the transmission can make grinding, whirring sounds or no  noise at all. When a transmission has a major failure you might hear a loud pop  which could mean a drive component inside the transmission has failed and the car  will stop moving.

Some manufacturers have developed a continuously variable transmission  or CVT. This type of transmission has become popular during the past few years.  Instead of having set gear ratios, the system can change the amount of forward acceleration  over a wide range of speeds. Two cones or wheels of varying diameter are used to  change the gear ratio. Hydrostatic drives use a variable displacement pump and hydraulic  motor to vary the ratio continuously according to the amount of throttle being given  and the amount of load on the vehicle.

Popular Problems Checks
1. Car will not go into gear:
  • Gear selector cable has failed
  • Brake lock solenoid/brake light swtich has failed not allowing the gear   selector to move out of "Park"
  • Excessively low transmission fluid (note: if car is operated for an extended   amount of time with low fluid level the transmission will fail prematurely)
  • Shorted electrical component not allowing the PCM to control the transmission.   Example: shorted fuse
  • Flex plate (flywheel) is broken completely not transferring engine power   to the transmission.

2. Car goes into gear but then fades out of gear or is slipping while driving:
  • Transmission fluid is low
  • Transmission clutch discs or bands are worn out or burned
  • Faulty transmission shift solenoid.

3. Car goes into gear but does not shift out of first:
  • Blown fuse to the PCM controller
  • Faulty vehicle speed sensor (VSS)
  • Shorted second gear control solenoid
  • Faulty transmission controller (PCM)

Tips About Common Problems and Fixes
  • When the vehicle is cold or going around corners the transmission fades   in and out of gear: In most cases this means the transmission fluid is   low. The transmission will lose hydraulic pressure causing the transmission   to drift in and out of gear. Check your transmission fluid when the car is on   flat ground with the engine idling in park (some Chrysler products must be checked   in neutral), add fluid as needed and recheck level.
  • Transmission is shifting too late or not at all. On most cars the   transmission is controlled by the PCM (powertrain control module) if the vehicle   speed sensor fails the PCM has no input so the computer will not shift the transmission   properly. The best way to check this sensor is to make sure the speedometer   is operating correctly. If it isn't, replace the VSS and recheck. On older cars   the transmission shifting is controlled by either a vacuum modulator or a throttle   control valve cable (TV Cable). If the vacuum is impaired to the modulator or   the throttle valve cable has failed the transmission will not shift correctly.
  • The transmission skips second gear, shifts from first gear to third gear   and the "service engine soon" MIL is illuminated.  Scan the PCM to locate the   transmission control solenoid that has malfunctioned, replace the solenoid then   clear trouble codes and recheck operation.

Fluid Level and Leaks

Transmission Planetary Gear Set
One of the most common complaints with an automatic transmission  is leaking fluid. Leaks can occur from the driveshaft seals, the input shaft seal,  pan gasket, or the ATF (automatic transmission fluid) cooler or line connections.  When adding transmission fluid, do not overfill. Doing so could cause the fluid  to become aerated, which will affect transmission operation. If there are no visible  leaks, check the radiator for ATF in the coolant. The ATF cooler inside the radiator  may be leaking and cross-contaminating the radiator coolant. You should also check  the condition of the fluid, some discoloration and darkening is normal as the fluid  ages, but if the ATF is brown or has a burnt smell, it is badly oxidized and a transmission service  needs to be performed.

Most transmission problems can be prevented by changing the ATF and filter according  to manufacturer specifications. In extreme conditions installing an aftermarket  auxiliary ATF cooler parallel to the OEM ATF cooler is recommended. This prevents  fluid overheating on vehicles used for towing or performance applications.

Fault Codes:
Fault codes can be set when the transmission controller or PCM detects a malfunction.  Codes can be set by the computer when a command is sent, such as a 2-3 shift, but  the transmission does not respond.

Diagnostic Procedure

  •   Clear all DTC's with a  engine scan tool (diagnostic   trouble codes)
  •   Start the engine and observe the MIL, if it does not illuminate   continue to next step (malfunction   inductor lamp or  check   engine light)
  •  Drive the vehicle while trying to maintain a constant throttle   position as it accelerates up through all four gears. If the transmission is   shifting properly, it should be in 4th gear by the time you reach 45 to 50 mph   on level ground. Repeat this procedure from a standing start 3 to 5 times. Rescan   the PCM for trouble codes, if none appear the problem could have been a onetime   occurrence. If  trouble   codes have returned repair as needed and recheck system.
    Tips: Never allow little noises go unattended, a small noise can cause  a large noise and transmission failure. Avoid overloading a vehicle or towing beyond  capacity this can cause premature transmission failure.

How Electrical Connectors Work

Electrical connectors are a vital part of every vehicle on the road today. Electrical or wire connectors vary from a single connector to many wires depending on the application. The exact type of connector used on the vehicle will depend on the duty of the connector. For example, wire and connectors that carry reduced amps tend to be small, while those connectors that are handling heavy loads tend to be much larger. Connectors can snap together, slide together, and simply clip together; there are numerous types of connectors available. The range of options available is dramatic.

 All power accessory systems use connectors for example: radio, antenna, power window and even the alternator all use various forms of connectors. Most of the electrical connectors are designed and constructed from plastic with small metal components inside which transfer electrical power from one wire to another.

Common Problems and Solutions
The most common problem that can occur with a connector is a short circuit. This condition occurs when a wire close to the connector breaks or high resistance is present inside the connector itself. It is also possible for a connector to overheat and melt, this occurs when high amperage or resistance is present. If a connector within your vehicle has melted, turn the key off, disconnect the battery, repair or replace the connector as needed and recheck system.

One problem that is quite common with connectors is the safety clip that holds connectors together can break. There might be some circumstances when electrical tape is needed to hold the connectors together. Determining which solution is best for your situation and on how tightly the connector fits together.
Another common problem is when a connectors comes loose. This is one of the easiest problems to correct because it just involves pressing the connectors back together. Carefully pressing the ends together should allow the connector to snap into place.
Common maintenance suggests inspecting electrical connectors that are visible. Broken connectors are not common but possible, especially in older vehicles due to aging plastic the connector is made from. Connectors that are inspected can spare much aggravation and prevent malfunctions of equipment in the vehicle.


How Horsepower Works

How Horsepower Works

Whenever someone mentions horsepower the first thing that comes to mind is cars. Fast cars with extreme torque, vehicles with large power and extreme speed. But what makes horsepower measuring so meaningful? And why is it called horsepower? The word horsepower was created in 1782 by James Watt, a famous 19th century engineer while he was developing a way to improve the power of a steam engine. While watching horses haul coal out of a coal mine he came up with the idea of defining the power exerted by these animals. He calculated that a normal horse attached to a mill that ground corn or cut wood walked in a circle that was 24 feet in diameter. He then calculated that the horse pulled with a force of 180 pounds. Watt noticed the horse could make 144 trips around this circle in an hour. That is 2.4 trips per minute. Using these numbers he calculated that the horse traveled about 180.96 foot per minute then rounded up and came up with 181 foot per minute. He then multiplied the 181 foot per minute by 180 pounds of force the horse exerted and came up with the number 32,580 foot pounds per minute then rounded up again to the number 33,000 foot pounds per minute. This number equals one horsepower.

Mr. Watt used his new found term to rate the power of the steam engine. Since most people were unfamiliar with the steam engine he had to come up with a comparison measurement that the normal farmer of the day would understand. As with any measurement there are different variations and different methods of measuring horsepower or hp. The normal measurement of horsepower is called mechanical horsepower.
Metric Horsepower
In Europe horsepower is measured a slightly different way. Horsepower is known by the various countries literal translation of the word horsepower. Some acronyms include PS, CV, pk and so on. Depending on the origin of the engine in question its horsepower is measured by that country's standards. Metric horsepower is defined as .73549875 kW. This is roughly 98.6% of mechanical horsepower.
Horsepower in Europe
Other countries have their own ways to measure horsepower. PS stands for Pferdestarke or horse strength. This is the German equivalent of horsepower. It is no longer used in Germany but it is in some other counties. It has since been replaced by the kilowatt but the EEC where horsepower was still used in advertisements as most people do not know the use of the kilowatt as a power measurement for combustion engines. Mathematically a PS = .73549875 kW = 0.9863201652997627 hp. The Dutch have the paardenkracht (pk). The Swedish have the hastkraft (hk). The Finnish have the hevosvoima (hv). All of these are equal to the German (ps). RAC horsepower, or taxable horsepower, is a British standard measurement of an automobile's power. It was adopted by the Royal Automobile Club. Taxable horsepower does not reflect true horsepower but it is a calculation based on the engine's bore size, the number of cylinders and a presumption of engine efficiency. The figure is no longer used as a standard in the UK but it is still put to use for the calculation of a vehicle's tax. The equation is RACh.p.= D squared * n/2.5 where D is the diameter of the bore of the cylinder in inches and n is the number of cylinders.

How Horsepower is used Measure the Power of an Engine?

1970 Chevy Chevelle SS

There are several names used to give an idea on how powerful an engine is. They are Nominal horsepower, Indicated horsepower and SAE gross horsepower. Nominal horsepower (nhp) is an early 19th century standard for estimating the power of steam engines. NHP = 7 x area of the piston x equivalent piston speed/33,000. It is measured by the size of the engine and the piston speed. Indicated horsepower (ihp) is calculated from the pressure in the cylinder. It is a misleading measurement as the actual power may be 79% to 90% of the indicated power. This was used to measure steam engine power. This measurement was open to interpretation so numbers varied. SAE gross horsepower was used by most car makers prior to 1972. It was measured with a test engine that had no accessories attached. It was a measurement of the maximum value of the engine and was often over rated to influence the sales of muscle cars. An engine that has its horsepower rating approved by the SAE will always be true to its number.  

How Variable Cam Timing Works (VCT)

Car manufacturers have developed a variable cam timing system that adjusts  the cam to crankshaft timing depending on change in the engine speed and load.  The engine computer plays a vital role in the engine's performance as it adjusts  the camshaft timing depending on the vehicle's engine speed and load. In any  range of engine speeds only one camshaft position (in relationship to the  crankshaft) is optimum for power and economy. Pressurized engine oil is control  by the engine computer through an oil control valve which allows engine oil to  flow to the cam timing actuator (or phaser), as the oil is forced into the actuator the  camshaft timing advances, when the pressure is released a return spring supplies  force to return the actuator to standard position.

Variable Timing Camshaft

There are many types of camshaft arrangements; some common types are single overhead  cam or SOHC, double overhead cam or DOHC and pushrod, rocker arm style of systems.  In a single overhead cam type, the engine is equipped with only one cam per cylinder head. Therefore, there is one cam in a four cylinder engine, also with straight  six cylinder engine. In v6 or v8 engine configurations there will be one camshaft  for each cylinder head, two camshafts and double the camshafts for DOHC engines.  The valve spring maintains pressure against the valve forcing the valve to contact  the valve seat, sealing the intake or exhaust port. If the valve spring is weak  or is broken the valve will lose pressure and will cause the engine to run poorly.

Variable Cam Timing Phaser Operation 
The specialty of a double overhead cam engine is that it has two cams per head.  This means that the inline engines are equipped with two cams, four cams in V style  engines. The use of double overhead cams is more common in engines which have more  than two valves per cylinder. This is because a single camshaft doesn't have the  ability to include sufficient cam lobes that can accommodate all the valves present  in a three or four valve per cylinder engine. Double overhead cams give the advantage  of adding more exhaust and intake valves. More valves allow the exhaust and intake  gases to flow freely because of the increase in the number of openings, this in  turn improves engine power and economy.

Four Valves Per Cylinder Configuration

A pushrod style of engine has a different valve opening configuration; the camshaft  is housed in the engine block instead of the cylinder head. The camshaft utilizes  lobe followers or lifters that connect to the rocker arms through a push rod.

Typical In Block Camshaft Configuration

This system is not as efficient because of the increase in weight of the system.  In turn, increases the valve springs load, slowing the engine down. Overhead camshaft  engines are more efficient and can produce more power.
A Camshaft is commonly used to operate poppet valves in a piston engine. A cylindrical  rod is situated in the cylinder block or cylinder head which has oblong lobes or  cams which push a tappet or lifter to raise and lower the intake and exhaust valves.  This force is applied on the valve directly or through an intermediate mechanism  such as a rocker arm, lifter (cam follower) and push rods are used to press against  the valve for movement. Each valve utilizes a spring which will return them to their  original position (closed) after the force is removed.

Cams are designed according to the RPM and horsepower range desired. When the  intake valve is pushed open, the piston travels down pulling an air/fuel charge  into the cylinder. This intake charge is a mixture of air and fuel and is ready  for combustion. The faster the engine is running the faster the air and fuel mixture  moves into the engine which also means that the intake and exhaust valves open and  close quicker. This parameter is known as the valve duration and is controlled by  the cam lobe width profile.

Basic Maintenance
A camshaft is driven by the crankshaft of the engine by a timing chain or timing  belt. The timing belt or chain needs to be replaced per manufacturer's specifications  because they wear out and fail without warning and stall the engine. Because a timing  chain configuration is more durable when compared to the timing belt style a timing  belt will need to be replaced more often, comparatively. Timing belts are more common  in overhead cam engines and are more easily serviced.
Cam followers or lifters have the capability to automatically adjust themselves,  removing any access clearance in the system. Maintain manufacturer recommended engine oil service.


Blue Smoke from Engine's Exhaust

Blue Smoke from Engine's Exhaust

Many people consider blue smoke from a vehicle to be elusive. Blue smoke is generally caused because of several specific conditions in the vehicle's engine. We will help you determine what the problem is so it can be corrected and stop the blue smoke. Blue smoke appears mostly at morning start up because oil from the vehicle's engine is mixing with the gas inside the engine's combustion chambers, then burned together with the fuel from the injectors while the engine is running. This can result in a very expensive repair, but not always. The more expensive and usually terminal reason for blue smoke is the piston rings have worn out allowing engine oil to pass into the combustion chamber.

In this case the engine is worn out and needs to be replaced, this can be expensive. There are other reasons the engine can burn oil, some engines have a small oil drain back holes in the cylinder heads, these holes allow the engine oil to drain back into the oil pan. The oil is picked up by the oil pump and returned back to the engines vital parts under pressure. If these drain back holes become plugged it can cause oil to seep down into the valves and into the combustion chamber. To repair this problem remove the valve cover and clean debris from the drain back holes, reassemble and recheck (note: after repair you must wait 2 to 4 days before the remainder of oil on the valve stems to be removed)

Most of the time producing blue smoke can be repeated since it's not usually a problem that is a single occurrence. Typically, once a vehicle starts producing blue smoke this pattern will continue to repeat until the engine is repaired. There are times when some engine additives can cause the blue smoke as well. If you are continuously adding additives to your fuel to stop smoke, you may be inadvertently covering up the smoke that your vehicle produces normally. However, if you are continuously adding engine or fuel line cleaners that are a strange color it can on occasion produce the strange colors of smoke. This condition is normal and will subside when the cleaner has run its course.

Common Problems and Solutions

The most common problems of blue smoke revolve around oil leaking into the engine's combustion chambers and burning with the fuel as discussed. However, the solutions to the problem often vary depending on the exact condition of the engine. There are times when the correction can be as simple as changing the valve stem seals or cleaning drain back holes.

It is important to note that if you decide to repair the engine you have, you are often looking at hourly repair rates plus parts and machine work to repair the engine. This is quite costly and depending on the age of the engine may well not be worth the expense of the repair. If you are highly fond of the vehicle and intend to keep it there are definitely times when a new or rebuilt engine is a better deal. Keep in mind, if you decide to change out the engine you are often able to extend the life of your vehicle by 10 years or more which can save thousands over the price of buying a new vehicle. Plus, your best bet on a new or rebuilt engine can be obtained by the dealer; surprisingly the dealer cost for the engine is close to what you will pay to have the engine rebuilt independently.


Maintenance for a vehicle is something that is often overlooked. From blank stares when asked when the last oil change occurred, to the even stranger looks that occur when asking when the last tire rotation was completed. It is very important to maintain oil changes and tune-ups that are performed on schedule. Proper maintenance to your car is a good way to keep all internal engine parts from becoming damaged prematurely. Without oil lubrication an engine will quickly become severely damaged. Anytime you are able to lengthen the life of the engine and help avoid breakdowns it is beneficial to the motoring experience.

Sometimes it is advisable to seek a professional ASE or other certified mechanic to trouble shoot the problem for the blue smoke condition. Never avoid engine problems as they can cause a simple and inexpensive repair to escalate to a costly repair that could have been avoided. Choosing the right mechanic or repair shop for your needs is often the biggest issue, however many times it can take just a referral from a friend or relative in order to find an appropriate repair shop.

Poorly maintained engines are much more prone to problems such as smoking. The excessive friction leads to catastrophic engine failure. Preventative maintenance is cheap insurance to ensure that your vehicle runs as smooth as possible for many miles to come.